Home / Pets Training / What Size Dog Crate Do You Need? [The Ultimate Guide]

What Size Dog Crate Do You Need? [The Ultimate Guide]

If you’re no longer certain what dimension canine crate to shop for to your canine, you’ve come to the precise position. This final canine crate information won’t most effective will let you to search out the precise size but in addition the precise taste to fit your needs and your canine’s wishes.

Do you want a crate for pet coaching? Or in all probability you need a heavy responsibility person who your canine can’t spoil? There are many alternative canine crate designs in the marketplace, so that you’re sure to search out person who fits your wishes.

I’ll inform all of the components you want to believe whilst you’re opting for a crate, how one can measure your pooch, plus we’ll have a look at the primary types of crate to be had and the professionals and cons for each and every.

Stick with us!​

Contents & Quick Navigation

How To Choose The Right Dog Crate?

Crates are available a number of sizes, types, and fabrics. Choosing the precise crate will depend on more than a few components, together with:​

  • The dimension of your canine
  • The age of your canine (if she is a pet, you could need to get a cord crate and use a divider)
  • If your canine likes a den-like environment or an open crate with visibility
  • If she is unfavourable or an break out artist
  • The local weather (some are higher ventilated/insulated than others)
  • The taste you need for your house
  • Whether you want it for go back and forth (some are particularly designed for simple transportation and airline go back and forth)​

If your head is spinning after studying all that, don’t fear!

Later on, we will be able to provide you with a breakdown of all of the several types of crates together with which canines (and folks!) it fits perfect.

How Big Should a Dog Crate Be?

It is essential to get the dimensions of your canine’s crate proper. It shouldn’t be too cramped, nevertheless it shouldn’t be offering an excessive amount of area, both.

Your canine will have to have the ability to flip round simply and take a seat up with out hitting her head at the best. She will have to additionally have the ability to stretch out her legs when mendacity on her facet. Dogs want leg room, too!

Dog homeowners steadily purchase crates which are too massive to provide their canine a whole lot of more space, however this in truth detracts from the crate’s usefulness as a coaching instrument. For instance, crates can be utilized for dwelling coaching, but when your canine has an excessive amount of room in her crate, she may finally end up the use of one nook as a rest room.

What’s extra, crates can provide your pooch a sense of safety, which your canine received’t be feeling if she has a whole lot of empty area round her.

So, what dimension canine crate do you want?​

How To Measure An Adult Dog For A Crate

So, let’s discuss measurements for a fully-grown canine.

If she is an grownup, it is important to measure her duration and peak. (I recommend having some treats handy!) Measuring the width of your canine isn’t important, as upon getting the precise peak and duration, the width might be proportional.

To make issues more uncomplicated for you, you’ll be able to have your canine stand in opposition to a wall (ideally in a nook, together with her backside in opposition to the wall). This approach, you’ll be able to mark the measurements and get out the measuring tape after. To make the marks, you should definitely use one thing that rubs off after, like chalk.​

Length

To correctly measure the duration of your canine, get her status on all 4 paws and measure from the top of her nostril to the bottom of her tail. You don’t want to come with all the duration of your canine’s tail, or the crate might be too giant.

For very thick, exhausting tails, you’ll be able to measure a bit of of her tail if you want – it is because when she wags, it’ll hit in opposition to the crate.

Next, upload 2 inches (five cm) for smaller canines, and four inches (10 cm) for bigger canines to permit her abundant transferring room, and also you’ve were given the minimal duration* to your canine’s crate.​

​Height

Now, get the ones treats out and inform your canine to take a seat. Measure her on this upright place from the ground to the tallest level in their head (in case your canine’s ears are erect, measure as much as to the top of the ears!)

Again, upload 2 – four inches, and also you’ve were given the minimal peak* to your crate.

*These measurements offers you the minimal crate dimension. If you get a crate this is a couple of inches larger, it shouldn’t topic. More than that, on the other hand, may lead to a crate this is too massive to your canine, and, as discussed above, won’t make a just right crate coaching setting.

What Size Crate Should You Get For A Puppy?

If your funds permits it and also you’d desire to shop for different-sized crates to your canine all over their rising duration, you’ll be able to use the similar way as above.

But let’s face it; doggies develop speedy in order that cash received’t final! So, if you select to do that, I’d advise you to not spend an excessive amount of cash in your first purchases. Once she reaches grownup dimension, you’ll be able to go for costlier, trendy crates that she will revel in for longer.

Below is every other at hand money-saving tip I’d like to signify.

Tip: Save Money By Buying A Resizable Crate

It’s extremely most likely that your canine’s dimension as a pet might be very diverse to her full-grown grownup dimension, that means she is going to want a much smaller crate right through puppyhood. And what about all of the phases in between?

Clearly, it will take numerous bother and money to stay upgrading crates as your pet grows. Instead, a good suggestion is to get one to deal with your canine’s grownup dimension and purchase a divider to cut back the dimensions to fit your domestic dog.​

dog crates with dividers

A divider is a detachable cord or picket panel you insert into the crate to regulate the to be had dimension.

So, as your toddler grows, you’ll be able to stay changing the location of the divider to provide her the distance she wishes. That approach, your canine gets all of the advantages of a well-fitted crate from puppyhood to maturity.

Dog Crate Sizes Chart for All Popular Breeds

This is a canine crate dimension information for commonplace canine breeds, designed that can assist you make a choice the precise dimension crate to your puppy. But first, let me inform you two issues:

  1. I’ve supplied a weight and peak bracket for each and every segment, so you may have a coarse thought of which class your canine is more likely to fall beneath.
  2. Your canine’s gender – in addition to the potential for blended ancestry – impacts her dimension. So, have in mind that she or he would possibly want a larger or smaller crate than what’s indexed right here.

18″ – 22″ Dog Crates for Extra Small Dog Breeds

18” – 22” (45 – 56 cm) canine crates are the most productive dimension for the next toy breeds weighing between 1-10 lbs and starting from about 6”-12” in peak:

  • Affenpinscher
  • Bichon Frise
  • Boston Terrier
  • Brussels Griffon
  • Chihuahua
  • Jack Russell Terrier
  • Japanese Chin
  • Maltese
  • Miniature Dachshund
  • Papillon
  • Pomeranian
  • Pug
  • Russkiy Toy
  • Shih Tzu
  • Toy Fox Terrier
  • Yorkshire Terrier

XS crate dimensions come with:

  • 18″ L x 12″ W x 14″ H
  • 18.five” L x 12.5″ W x 14.five” H
  • 19″ L x 12″ W x 15″ H
  • 22″ L x 13″ W x 16″ H

24″ Dog Crates for Small Dog Breeds

24” (61cm) canine crates are the most productive dimension for the next small breeds weighing between 11-25 lbs and starting from round 13”-17” in peak.

  • Affenpinscher
  • Australian Silky Terrier
  • Bichon Frise
  • Border Terrier
  • Boston Terrier
  • Cairn Terrier
  • Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
  • Chinese Crested
  • Dachshund
  • Fox Terrier
  • French Bulldog
  • Havanese
  • Jack Russell Terrier
  • Italian Greyhound
  • Lhasa Apso
  • Maltese
  • Miniature Pinscher
  • Miniature Poodle
  • Miniature Schnauzer
  • Norfolk Terrier
  • Norwich Terrier
  • Parson Russell Terrier
  • Pekingese
  • Scottish Terrier
  • Shih Tzu
  • Skye Terrier
  • Tibetan Spaniel
  • Welsh Terrier
  • West Highland White Terrier
  • Yorkshire Terrier

Small crate dimensions come with:

  • 24″ L x 18″ W x 19″ H
  • 24″ L x 17″ W x 20″ H
  • 24″ L X 18″ W X 21″ H
  • 24.five” L x 17.five” W x 19.five” H
  • 24.five” L x 18” W x 19.five” H
  • 25” L x 18.five” x 21” H

30″ Dog Crates for Medium Dog Breeds

30” (76cm) canine crates are the most productive dimension for the next medium-sized breeds weighing between 26-40 lbs and measuring about 18”-19” in peak.

  • American Pit Bull Terrier
  • American Staffordshire Terrier
  • American Water Spaniel
  • Basenji
  • Bedlington Terrier
  • Cardigan Welsh Corgi
  • Clumber Spaniel
  • Cocker Spaniel
  • Dachshund
  • French Bulldog
  • German Pinscher
  • Kerry Blue Terrier
  • Miniature Schnauzer
  • Shetland Sheepdog
  • Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
  • Staffordshire Bull Terrier
  • Tibetan Terrier
  • Welsh Corgi
  • Welsh Terrier

Medium crate dimensions come with:

  • 30″ L x 19″ W x 21″ H
  • 30″ L x 19″ W x 22″ H
  • 30″ L x 21″ W x 24″ H
  • 30.five” L x 19.25” W x 21.five” H
  • 30.75″ L x 19.75″ W x 21.5″ H
  • 30.25” L x 19.25” W x 20.five” H
  • 31” L x 21.five” W x 24” H

36″ Dog Crates for Intermediate Dog Breeds

36” (91cm) canine crates are the most productive dimension for the next intermediate-sized breeds weighing between 41-70 lbs and starting from round 20”-22” in peak:

  • Alaskan Husky
  • American Eskimo
  • Australian Cattle Dog
  • Basset Hound
  • Beagle
  • Belgian Tervuren
  • Border Collie
  • Brittany Spaniel
  • Bulldog
  • Bull Terrier
  • Chinese Shar-Pei
  • Chow-Chow
  • Clumber Spaniel
  • Cocker Spaniel
  • English Setter
  • English Springer Spaniel
  • Finnish Spitz
  • Harrier
  • Keeshond
  • Norwegian Elkhound
  • Portuguese Water Dog
  • Shetland Sheepdog
  • Siberian Husky
  • Standard Schnauzer
  • Whippet

Intermediate crate dimensions come with:

  • 36″ L x 23″ W x 25″ H
  • 36″ L x 23″ W x 26″ H
  • 36″ L x 24″ W x 27″ H
  • 36” L x 21” W x 26” H
  • 36.75” L x 22.75” W x 24.75” H
  • 37” L x 24.five” W x 28” H
  • 37.25” L x 23” W x 24.75” H

42″ Dog Crates for Large Dog Breeds

42” (107cm) canine crates are the most productive dimension for the next massive breeds weighing between 71-90 lbs and starting from about 23” – 26” in peak:

  • Airedale Terrier
  • American Bulldog
  • Australian Shepherd
  • Bearded Collie
  • Belgian Malinois
  • Belgian Sheepdog
  • Belgian Tervuren
  • Border Collie
  • Boxer
  • Irish Setter
  • Irish Water Spaniel
  • Labrador Retriever
  • Rhodesian Ridgeback
  • Saluki
  • Samoyed
  • Poodle (Standard)
  • Vizsla

Large crate dimensions come with:

  • 42″ L x 28″ W x 30″ H
  • 42″ L x 28″ W x 31″ H
  • 42″ L x 29″ W x 31″ H
  • 42” L x 21” W x 30” H
  • 43″ L x 28.5″ W x 30.25″ H
  • 43” L x 28.25” W x 31.five”H
  • 43.25” L x 29.25” W x 30.five” H
  • 43.25” L x 28.25” W x 30.25” H

48″ Dog Crates for Extra Large Dog Breeds

48” (122cm) canine crates are the most productive dimension for the next XL breeds weighing between 91 – 110 lbs and starting from round 26” – 28” in peak:

  • Afghan Hound
  • Akita
  • Alaskan Malamute
  • Bernese Mountain Dog
  • Bloodhound
  • Bouvier Des Flandres
  • Briard
  • Bullmastiff
  • Chinook
  • Doberman Pinscher
  • Giant Schnauzer
  • Greyhound
  • Komondor
  • Kuvasz
  • Old English Sheepdog
  • Otterhound
  • Pointer
  • Rottweiler
  • Samoyed
  • Tervueren
  • Weimaraner

XL crate dimensions come with:

  • 48″ L x 29″ W x 32” H
  • 48” L x 30” W x 32” H
  • 48” L x 30” W x 33” H
  • 48.75″ L x 30.25″ W x 32.25″ H
  • 49.75″ L x 30.25″ W x 32.25″ H
  • 48.75″ L x 30.875″ W x 32.25″ H
  • 49″ L x 30″ W x 35″ H

54″ Dog Crates for XXL Giant Dog Breeds

54” (137cm) canine crates are the most productive dimension for the next massive breeds weighing over 110 lbs and starting from someplace between 29” – 40” in peak:

  • Anatolian Shepherd
  • Borzoi
  • Dogue De Bordeaux
  • Great Dane
  • Great Pyrenees
  • Irish Wolfhound
  • Leonberger
  • Mastiff
  • Neapolitan Mastiff
  • Newfoundland
  • Scottish Deerhound
  • St. Bernard

XXL crate dimensions come with:

  • 54” L x 35” W x 45” H
  • 54″ L x 37″ W x 45″ H

What Types Of Dog Crate Can You Buy?

Dog crates are available many alternative applications, and each and every has its personal set of benefits and downsides.

Some crates are extra transportable than others as a result of they’re collapsible, whilst others can be utilized for aircraft go back and forth.

The proper one for you will depend on the best way you need to make use of it, if you need a undeniable taste to compare your house, and the way unfavourable your canine is.

Here are the five major varieties to be had:

  1. Metal Wire crates
  2. Plastic crates
  3. Soft-sided crates
  4. Metal heavy responsibility crates
  5. Stylish crates (picket, rattan)

Metal Wire Dog Crate

Best fit: canines who like to look their atmosphere; canines in sizzling climates

These are some of the widely-used form of canine crate. Usually, they arrive with a unmarried door at the entrance, however some fashions even have doorways at the facet and the roof for larger get entry to.

This form of crate is just right for canines who like to look what’s occurring round them. If your canine will get nervous on seeing their atmosphere whilst of their crate, the use of a crate duvet can treatment this.

They’re additionally an ideal selection for those who are living in a sizzling local weather, as they have got just right air flow. For canines residing in chillier climates, you might have considered trying a extra sheltered fashion.

Wire crates are the preferred selection for individuals who need collapsible canine crates for portability. They is usually a bit heavy, particularly the larger-sized ones. So, for those who move on a whole lot of journeys along with your canine, you’ll want to believe getting a 2d lighter-weight crate only for go back and forth.

They also are the most suitable option if you wish to acquire only one adult-sized crate when she’s a pet, as you’ll be able to simply regulate the distance by way of the use of a divider. This makes them appropriate for folks on the cheap who would favor to shop for only one crate that lasts from puppyhood into maturity.

Pros of Wire Crates:

  • Well-ventilated – just right for decent climates or for canines with lengthy coats who overheat
  • Good for canines that really feel comforted by way of seeing their atmosphere
  • Fairly simple to scrub (maximum fashions include a detachable base tray)
  • Can be fitted with detachable divider panels
  • Many are collapsible for simple portability and garage
  • Available with 2 or three doorways for larger get entry to.Usually probably the most economical choice

Cons of Wire Crates:

  • Not probably the most horny
  • Can be noisier than different forms of crates
  • For extra decided canines, this kind is almost definitely the perfect to flee from
  • For some canines, the visibility may cause tension
  • More uncovered than different fashions – provides little safe haven in chillier climates
  • While they’re steadily collapsible for simple go back and forth, they may be able to even be relatively heavy
  • If a canine has an coincidence in a cord crate, or in the event that they’re muddy, after which they shake, that’s no longer just right information for the encircling room.

Plastic Dog Crates

Best fit: canines who like to curve up in privateness; jet-setting canines

When you recall to mind transportable canine crates, plastic crates are almost definitely what involves thoughts. These crates are very gentle and simply portable, so they’re a just right choice for those who move touring so much along with your puppy. Usually, the 2 halves can also be stacked within one every other for simple garage, however they do absorb extra space than cord crates, as they don’t cave in.

The majority of plastic crates come airline licensed, so they’re your perfect wager for air go back and forth. If you want one because of this, you will have to double test the documentation sooner than purchasing.

Despite the truth that many fashions of plastic crates are advertised particularly as “transport” crates or “pet carriers,” however they may be able to be used for everlasting use at house, too.

They have much less visibility in comparison to cord crates, so they’re just right for canines who’re simply distracted or nervous on seeing their atmosphere and like a den-like environment. They also are extra sheltered, so they’re a just right choice for those who are living in a chilly local weather.

Moreover, whilst they’re no longer indestructible, they’re tougher than cord crates to flee from. Some canine homeowners additionally desire plastic crates as they may be able to be simply wiped clean.

Pros of Plastic Crates

  • Lighter and simple for go back and forth than cord crates
  • Many are ‘airline approved’
  • Less visibility – higher for simply distracted canines plus it provides a sense of safety
  • The backside part of the crate can occasionally be used as an open canine mattress
  • The two halves can also be indifferent and simply stacked one within the different
  • Sheltered – provides just right insulation in chillier climates
  • Some fashions have attachable meals and water dishes
  • More tricky than maximum cord crates for break out artists to get out of
  • Available in numerous colours – can fit to your house
  • Some shoppers desire plastic crates for simple cleansing – they may be able to be hosed or sprayed down simply in case of injuries or simply for common cleansing. Also, in contrast to with cord crates, in case your canine is messy and she or he shakes, it’s no longer going to succeed in a ways out of doors the crate.

Cons of Plastic Crates

  • Some canines desire extra visibility and would possibly to find it aggravating
  • Reduced air flow – no longer supreme for decent climates
  • Plastic can dangle odors through the years which are tricky to do away with
  • Does no longer fold flat – calls for extra cupboard space than cord crates.

Take a have a look at this video on how one can get ready your puppy container for aircraft go back and forth:

Note on aircraft go back and forth with snub-nosed canines:

Soft-Sided Dog Crates

Best fit: canines who take widespread little journeys with their human

These glance much less cage-like than cord or plastic crates, so they may be able to be a sensible choice for individuals who assume the opposite varieties are unpleasant.

As properly as to be used in the house, they’re an excessively sensible, transportable choice for individuals who like to go back and forth with their pooches. Whether at a picnic, within the lawn, or on a travel to the seashore, they may be able to supply a really nice safe haven for her. Super light-weight, they may be able to be simply carried, and, when no longer getting used, you merely fold them flat.

While those fashions are to be had for massive canines, because of the heavier weight, they’re tougher to hold along with your canine nonetheless within.

They are most often machine-washable, so you’ll be able to merely throw it within the wash with out getting your fingers grimy!

The comfortable subject material implies that this isn’t probably the most sturdy of crates, so it’s higher used for infrequent journeys reasonably than an everlasting house. Oh, and it definitely isn’t a sensible choice for unfavourable canines or for individuals who can simply paintings their approach out!

Pros of Soft-Sided Crates

  • Ideal for small, non-destructive canines
  • Extremely gentle and transportable – easiest for tenting journeys, picnics, going to the park, and so on.
  • Easy to retailer – can also be folded
  • Soft subject material – extra at ease for the canine within in comparison to others (although in fact, you’ll be able to supply bedding within any crate)
  • Most fashions can also be washed

Cons of Soft-Sided Crates

  • Not very sturdy
  • Not appropriate for unfavourable canines or break out artists – they might simply tear the material with their claws or chunk their approach out
  • Difficult to stay blank between washes, particularly if any injuries happen
  • More clever canines can discover ways to unzip their approach out.

This video will give you an ideal in-depth comparability between the above three forms of crates:

Metal Heavy Duty Dog Crates

Best fit: unfavourable doggos

For all of the puppy folks coping with unfavourable canines, I sympathize with you and hereby give you an answer! These crates are meant for the heavy chewers, diggers, and gifted break out artists. Huskies, we’re browsing at you…

Heavy responsibility crates can also be dear, they usually aren’t probably the most gorgeous, however they’re definitely price it in case your canine has those naughty conduct. By purchasing one that may’t be destroyed, you’ll be saving your self some huge cash and tension!

Some of those fashions also are licensed for airline go back and forth, so that you don’t have to fret about your canine getting as much as no just right when you’re within the air. Plus, if she already makes use of this crate at house, she might be conversant in it and extra at ease whilst touring.

Pros of Heavy Duty Crates:

  • Very sturdy – can comprise maximum unfavourable or break out artist-type canines
  • Some are licensed for airline go back and forth – in case your canine is already used to the crate that may make go back and forth more uncomplicated

Cons of Heavy Duty Crates:

  • Expensive (however price it in comparison to the price of changing more than one much less sturdy crates)
  • Not probably the most horny – however your canine will certain glance difficult in entrance of her pals!

Stylish Dog Crates

Best fit: non-destructive, toilet-trained canines; homeowners who like trendy crates

There are some very trendy crates in the marketplace constructed from completed picket or rattan, so for those who don’t like the theory of cord or plastic crates in your house, you don’t must compromise. Your canine’s crate – relatively actually – doesn’t must cramp your taste.

These picket crates can in truth be used as furnishings! You can substitute an aspect desk, or in all probability get one you sought after anyway, and – woah! – you’ve were given a spot to place your mug of espresso in addition to a bit of den to your primary better half! They are to be had in a variety of types, so you’ll be able to make a choice the only to fit your style and the decor of your house.

These forms of crates aren’t a just right choice for unfavourable hounds, as their tooth and claws will harm the picket. Some fashions do include a detachable plastic tray for simple cleansing, however I nonetheless wouldn’t counsel them for dwelling coaching, as any injuries will depart stains at the picket and odors could also be exhausting to get rid of.

It’s perfect to shop for this sort of crate as soon as your canine is completely grown, as they’re dear.

So, for those who’ve were given a well-behaved, house-trained pooch that’s all grown up and also you’re keen to spend a little bit extra on a classy canine crate, this might be the only for you!

Pros of Wooden Crates

  • Some can be utilized as furnishings
  • Can extra simply are compatible into the decor of a house
  • Plenty of types to be had
  • Some include detachable plastic trays for simple cleansing.

Cons of Wooden Crates

  • Not just right for unfavourable canines – they may be able to simply harm picket crates
  • If it comes with a completed picket ground, it’s no longer a sensible choice for dwelling coaching, as any injuries will depart stains and odors could also be exhausting to do away with
  • Tend to be dear

So Which Type of Crate Is Best?

No crate is “best,” precisely, because it completely will depend on what you want it for.

I can say that cord crates provide the perfect worth for cash they usually’re the maximum sensible. This is as a result of they may be able to be collapsed for simple garage, they’re portable, and you’ll be able to simply purchase one and use dividers.

For go back and forth – specifically on airplanes – plastic crates are your only option, and those can be used at house.

If you need the most productive of each worlds, you’ll be able to at all times acquire a cord crate for house use and stay a plastic crate at hand to your travels in combination.

Recommended Crates By Us!

My Top Recommendation: – Midwest iCrate Folding Dog Crate

This is a brilliant cord canine crate choice that is available in sizes to fit a wide variety of pooches, from mini to massive.

It is to be had in both unmarried or double door design with slide-bolt latches to fasten the door/s in position. It additionally features a loose divider panel, a robust sporting take care of, a detachable plastic pan, and rubber ft to offer protection to your flooring.

This is a collapsible canine crate that packs right down to transportable dimension, making it supreme for garage or go back and forth.

Here’s how one can bring together such a unhealthy boys (Yes, it in point of fact is as simple because it appears to be like! And sure even for you, Becky):

Plastic Crate if you’re occurring a flight/go back and forth

If you’re in search of a plastic crate for go back and forth, the Petmate Sky Kennel is a brilliant choice that is available in sizes to fit all canines.

For a plastic crate, it is a heavy responsibility fashion, made with high-strength plastic, further robust metal cord, and a safe wing-nut and bolt design.

It has two doorways for simple get entry to – one on the entrance and one at the roof. As properly as those two doorways, there also are openings at the facets and again of the crate, which provides it four-way air flow, protecting your canine cool and preventing her from feeling too “boxed in” as different cast plastic crates would possibly.

This fashion is airline licensed and is derived with “Live Animal” labels, id stickers, an absorbent pad and meals and water cups. She’ll be able to jet set with you immediately!

Conclusion

To get the precise dimension canine crate, you should definitely in moderation measure your canine’s duration and peak as we defined. As for the manner of crate, this is solely as much as you.

Wire crates are the maximum sensible, as they may be able to be simply assembled and collapsed, they usually’re the top choice for folks on the cheap.

Plastic crates, however, are nice for the vacationers amongst you, and plenty of come airline licensed.

Soft-sided crates also are just right for touring along with your canine. However, as they aren’t as sturdy they usually’re no longer airline licensed, they’re higher suited to quick journeys. I’d counsel a tougher crate for everlasting use at house.

Lastly, trendy picket crates are the least sensible however the best-looking. They’re nice for adult hounds that wouldn’t dream of chewing their crate or doing their industry the place they sleep.

About ShoaibAslam

Check Also

Tips for Traveling With Your Dog

Any canine proprietor will inform you, the canine is a member of the circle of …

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

%d bloggers like this: